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The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is a key player in research, development and innovation.
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The CEA publishes various scientific and technical periodicals and videos. Through them, you can discover the CEA’s major research topics and the latest technological innovations produced by its laboratories.
The TNP was signed on 1st July 1968 and came into force in 1970. It is the cornerstone of the fight against nuclear proliferation and is one of the foundations of the collective security system.
189 States are parties to the TNP. Among these States, the TNP makes a distinction between Nuclear Weapons States (NWS), defined as being those States which carried out a nuclear test before 1st January 1967, and the other States, called Non-Nuclear Weapons States (NNWS). There are 5 NWS: United States, Russia, United Kingdom, China and France. Three nuclear states are not parties to the TNP: India, Pakistan and Israel. North Korea officially withdrew from the TNP in 2003 (even if it intentionally maintains a degree of ambiguity with regard to its status in respect of the Treaty).
The TNP is based on three pillars, corresponding to the undertakings of the Parties:
The TNP was extended indefinitely in 1995 and provides for a Treaty review cycle every five years.
CEA is a French government-funded technological research organisation in four main areas: low-carbon energies, defense and security, information technologies and health technologies. A prominent player in the European Research Area, it is involved in setting up collaborative projects with many partners around the world.