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3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD) for charged particle detection

Publié le 1 octobre 2018
3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD) for charged particle detection
Vignetti M.M., Calmon F., Pittet P., Pares G., Cellier R., Quiquerez L., Chaves de Albuquerque T., Bechetoille E., Testa E., Lopez J.-P., Dauvergne D., Savoy-Navarro A.
Source-TitleNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5270, Villeurbanne, France, CEA-LETI, Grenoble, France, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Villeurbanne, France, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique & Cosmologie, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5821, Grenoble, France, Laboratoire d'AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS UMR 7164, Paris, France
Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are p–n junctions operated in Geiger Mode by applying a reverse bias above the breakdown voltage. SPADs have the advantage of featuring single photon sensitivity with timing resolution in the picoseconds range. Nevertheless, their relatively high Dark Count Rate (DCR) is a major issue for charged particle detection, especially when it is much higher than the incoming particle rate. To tackle this issue, we have developed a 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD). This novel device implements two vertically aligned SPADs featuring on-chip electronics for the detection of coincident avalanche events occurring on both SPADs. Such a coincidence detection mode allows an efficient discrimination of events related to an incoming charged particle (producing a quasi-simultaneous activation of both SPADs) from dark counts occurring independently on each SPAD. A 3D-SiCAD detector prototype has been fabricated in CMOS technology adopting a 3D flip-chip integration technique, and the main results of its characterization are reported in this work. The particle detection efficiency and noise rejection capability for this novel device have been evaluated by means of a ?? strontium-90 radioactive source. Moreover the impact of the main operating parameters (i.e. the hold-off time, the coincidence window duration, the SPAD excess bias voltage) over the particle detection efficiency has been studied. Measurements have been performed with different ?? particles rates and show that a 3D-SiCAD device outperforms single SPAD detectors: the former is indeed capable to detect particle rates much lower than the individual DCR observed in a single SPAD-based detectors (i.e. 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
3D integration, Avalanche pixel, Charged particle detection, Coincidence, SPAD
Avalanche diodes, Bias voltage, Efficiency, Particle beams, Particle detectors, Photons, Radioactivity, 3-D integration, Charged particle detection, Coincidence, Coincidence detection, Operating parameters, Single photon avalanche diode, Single photon sensitivity, SPAD, Charged particles
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